The main goal of OpenITI mARkdown is to provide a simple system for tagging structural, morphological and semantic elements in premodern and early modern Islamicate texts of the OpenITI corpus. The use of OpenITI mARkdown will allow one to engage in the computational analysis of texts in the same way as allowed by the more complex and time-consuming tagging schemes such as TEI XML; OpenITI mARkdown will also facilitate the conversion of the large volume of Islamicate texts into TEI XML, which is now the standard format for digital editions. In principle, OpenITI mARkdown does not require any special editor, but the current implementation relies on EditPad Pro, which supports right-to-left languages, Unicode, and large files. However, it is the support of custom highlighting and navigation schemes that makes this text editor particularly convenient for OpenITI mARkdown.

OpenITI mARkdown is not meant to be a comprehensive standard, but rather a light-weight tagging scheme that renders texts machine readable and can be adapted to specific research tasks. The scheme consists of a set of unified patterns, but also includes custom patterns that facilitate analysis of specific types of data. These patterns can be divided into structural (unified), morphological (unified, customizable) and semantic (unified customizable, but also custom). The scheme currently accommodates a variety of research inquiries.

A Very Brief Intro

  1. Texts in OpenITI are automatically converted into OpenITI mARkdown, and in most cases, only structural tagging is required—in other words, tagging headers of chapters, sections, subsections and and other logical units.
  2. Download and install EditPad Pro. EditPad Pro works on Windows only; if you are using Mac or Linux, you can still use it with some virtualization option; the combination of Parallels, Windows 10 and EditPad Pro works well on Macs (The size of the virtual machine with Windows 10 is only about 10-15Gb).
  3. Download OpenITI mARkdown schemes from GitHub (, and unzip, and copy all the files into %APPDATA%\JGsoft\EditPad Pro 7 (Note: make sure that EditPad Pro in not running: you need to do File > Exit to completely close it).
  4. The scheme is automatically activated in EditPad Pro by the first line in the file, which must be: #####OpenITI# (called magic value in EditPad Pro).
  5. Texts in the repositories of the OpenITI Project have already been preprocessed. Opening any of these texts in EditPad Pro should automatically activate OpenITI mARkdown scheme.
  6. The tagging of structural elements of the text boils down to the following:
    1. the headers of chapters (### |), sections (### ||), subsections (### |||), etc. The entire text of a header must be on the same line (the entire text will be highlighted, if everything is correct).
    2. and information units: biographies (### $), descriptions of events (### @), and dictionary entries (also ### $)
    3. If a structural/logical unit is tagged correctly, the color of the tagged unit will change accordingly.
  7. Tagging must be done through the collation of the electronic text of a book with the printed edition on which the electronic text is based. Most editions can be easily found online as PDF files (‘googling’ the title—in the original language—usually brings up a lot of results; PDFs are most likely to be on

Detailed Description

File structure

The OpenITI mARkdown file includes three main sections: 1) magic value that activates the scheme in EditPad Pro (######OpenITI#); 2) non-machine-readable metadata header (lines starting with #META# ...); machine-readable metadata is to be collected in corresponding *.yml files; see below for more details); 3) text of the book proper (begins after #META#Header#End#). The screenshot below displays the top of a file in OpenITI mARkdown with all three elements.

OpenITI mARkdown: three main sections of a document.

File-naming conventions in OpenITI:

CTS-compliant naming pattern

Canonical Text Services, or CTS, offer a powerful mechanism for building expandable and interoperable corpora. The power of the CTS lies in the URN, a uniform resource name (also URI, unique resource identifier), which provide the permanent canonical references to texts or passages of text, and are used by Canonical Text Services (CTS) to identify or retrieve passages of text (For an overview, see CTS Overview).

CTS URN Structure.

To make this example more understandable in the context of OpenITI, let’s take a look at a practical example of al-Ḏahabī’s Taʾrīḫ al-islām.

CTS URN Structure: al-Ḏahabī’s Taʾrīḫ al-islām.

OpenITI corpus is organized in compliance with CTS guidelines as they are implemented in the CapiTainS Suite, developed by Bridget Almas and Thibault Clérice at Tufts University and Leipzig University (, although the conversion into TEI XML is yet to be implemented. The entire corpus is divided into a series of repositories. Each repository covers a chronological period of 25AH lunar years, including authors who died within a given period. For example, the repository 0525AH includes authors whose death dates fall in the range of 501–525 AH). Below is an example of how al-Ġazālī’s Iḥyāʾ ʿulūm al-dīn fits into the corpus.

CTS-Compliant Folder Structure: Versions of al-Ġazālī’s Iḥyāʾ ʿulūm al-dīn incorporated into the repository 0525AH within OpenITI.

From the example below, you can see that the repository 0525AH includes a subfolder data, which includes a subfolder with al-Ġazālī’s URI, 0505Ghazali, which then includes a subfolder with Iḥyāʾ ʿulūm al-dīn URI, 0505Ghazali.IhyaCulumDin, which then includes ass the relevant files. NB: files contain some technical descriptions for a relevant level; *.yml files contain machine-readable metadata (On these metadata files see below).

File extensions

  • [no extension] : This is a RAW file, automatically converted from its initial format to be as close to the OpenITI mARkdown format as possible.
  • *.inProgress : The file has been selected to be fully converted into OpenITI mARkdown and is currently in progress of being converted (github log contains the username of the person who is working on the file).
  • *.completed : The conversion of the file is completed, but the file still requires final verification and vetting.
  • *.mARkdown : The file has been verified and vetted. This version should also have expanded tags and IDs assigned to each logical unit.

In the long run we are envisioning the entire corpus to be converted into TEI XML and becoming available as a library for researchers through some XML-based library framework.

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